DSC stands for Desired State Configuration. Its a declarative language that works on top of PowerShell.
DSC was introdcured in Powershell 4.0.
It can do system configuration, software deployment, Configuration validation, enforce compliance activities for you.
Not only the Windows O/s configuration DSC can do the Linux machine configurations for you. Further more these configuration may be used in conjunction with Automation frameworks like Chef, puppet, azure etc..